Revised Marxist-Leninist Philosophies of Public Administration in Eastern Europe and Their Impacts on Separatist Movements in Kurd Regions of Iran and Turkey during 21st Century


  • Avesta Farhad Research Associate at the Pak-Iran Intellectuals Forum (Qom Office)
  • Rojyar Ali Research Associate at the Pak-Iran Intellectuals Forum (Qom Office)
  • Muhammad Asim Assistant Professor at the Department of Political Science, Government Graduate College Asghar Mall, Rawalpindi


State-Socialism, Democratic Confederalism, Hoxhaism, Titoism, De-Stalinization


Titoism and Hoxhaism are such revised Marxist-Leninist philosophies in Eastern Europe that presented new ideas regarding public administration in the socialist states. These philosophies are the reaction against post-Lenin styles of public administration in the USSR. Such a reaction also affected the communist ideology of independence movements in the Kurd regions of Iran and Turkey. Although Iranian Kurdistan experienced Soviet rule during 1946-47 under the self-governing state of the Republic of Mahabad; now the Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan, Communist Party of Turkish Kurdistan and Turkish Freedom and Socialism Party modified their Marxist-Leninist ideology. Like China, they also use the terms “Social Democracy” and “Democratic Socialism” during the 21st century. This study highlights the impacts of Eastern European revised philosophies related to the Marxist-Leninist structure of public administration, and evaluates their impacts on the ideology of the Communist parties working in the Kurd regions of Iran and Turkey. As some Kurd ethno-national parties seek their separate socialist Kurd state(s), their experiences under Soviet patronage are also investigated in this study. The study also discusses how their separatist orientations have now converted into believing in the current political system, and how they have now been inclined towards seeking political rights rather than dreaming of separate homeland(s).


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