Comparing Environmental Conservation Efforts: Abkhazia’s Ecological Activism, Georgia’s National Forest Plantation Initiative and Pakistan’s Ten Billion Trees Tsunami Program


  • Elene Tamar Senior Lecturer at the Department of Environmental Studies, The Ilia State University, Tbilisi


Ten Billion Trees Tsunami Program, Climate Change, Water Crisis, Pakistan, Non-Traditional Security Threat, Mitigation


In this scholarly discourse, we embark upon a comparative exploration of the concerted endeavors undertaken by Abkhazia, Georgia and Pakistan in their quest for environmental preservation. Through a comprehensive investigation, we delve into the eco-activism in Abkhazia, the zealous efforts of the Georgian government’s National Forest Plantation Program and Pakistan’s ambitious Ten Billion Trees Tsunami Program. These intertwined initiatives aim to address the multifaceted challenges emanating from climate change and water scarcity. Notably, the Ten Billion Trees Tsunami Program seeks to counteract these non-conventional security threats by sowing the seeds of ten billion trees over a quinquennial period in regions prone to deforestation and aridity. The program’s objectives encompass the augmentation of forested lands, amelioration of water availability, mitigation of soil erosion and enhancement of the nation’s environmental fortitude. Furthermore, the program aspires to foster vocational prospects for local communities and stimulate eco-tourism. This scholarly discourse elucidates the salient objectives, methodologies of implementation and prospective ramifications of the aforementioned initiatives, thereby accentuating their momentousness in confronting the exigent environmental predicaments encountered by these regions.


Agreculture. (January 31, 2022). Finance Division. Retrieved from Government of Pakistan.

Ahmad, S., Zehra, J., Ali, M., Ali, S., Iqbal, S., Kamaal, S., & Tahir, M. (September 2022; 81). Impact of water insecurity amidst endemic and pandemic in Pakistan: Two tales unsolved. Ann Med Surg (Lond)., doi: 10.1016/j.amsu.2022.104350.

Alam, K. (January 31, 2015). Farmers’ adaptation to water scarcity in drought-prone environments: A case study of Rajshahi District, Bangladesh. Agricultural Water Management,Volume 148,, 196-206.

Aljazeera. (MAy 13, 2022). Pakistan city hits nearly 50C as blistering heatwave grips nation. Retrieved March 26, 2023, from

Anderson, J., Gauthier, M., Thomas, G., & Wondelock, J. (january 15, 1996). Summary of Discussion Papers. FAO.

Asim, D. M. (2023, May 17). The Intricate Interplay between Abkhazian Sufism and Turkish Sufi Movements. Retrieved from Pak-Iran Intellectuals Forum:

Baloch, S. M. (June 07, 2020). Water crisis: How is Pakistan running dry.? Retrieved Februry 11, 2023, from DW:,because%20we%20have%20few%20dams

BBC. (November 02, 2022). What is climate change? A really simple guide. Retrieved Februry 11, 2023, from BBC:

Costa, H., Sprout, E., & Teng, S. (December 14, 2022). Greenhouse Effect. Retrieved MArch 20, 2023, from National Geographic:

Douglas, E. H. (1993). The Mystical Teachings of Al-Shadhili; Including His Life, Prayers, Letters and Followers : a Translation from the Arabic of Ibn Al-Sabbagh’s Durrat Al-asrar Wa Tuhfat Al-abrar. New York: State University of New York Press.

Duffy, C., Donoghue, C. O., Ryan, M., Kilcline, K., Upton, V., & Spillance, C. ( July 2020). The University of Rhode Island. Forest Policy and Economics,Volume 116,0, onlne. Retrieved from Reduce soil erosion.

Durani, Z. K. (March 11, 2020). Water Scarcity and Social Vulnerabilities: A Multi-Dimensional Perspective of Water Challenges in Pakistan. Journal of Sustainability Education.

Eckstein, D., Hutfils, M.-L., & Winges, M. (2018). Global Climate Risk Index 2019. BRIEFING PAPER German Watch.

FAO. (March 12, 2023). National forest products statistics, Pakistan. Retrieved from Food Agriculture Organization:

Farhad, A., & Asim, D. M. (2023, May 17). The Interplay of Abkhazian Sufism and Sufi Movements in Karachay-Cherkessia and Kabardino-Balkaria: A Tapestry of Shared Traditions. Retrieved from Pak-Iran Intellectuals Forum:

Ghuman, M. (December 14, 2022). Briefing on Diamer-Bhasha Dam sought: Senate panel discusses sedimentation at Tarbela Dam. Retrieved March 12, 2023, from Bussines Recorder:

GoP. (April 24, 2018). NATIONAL WATER POLICY 2018. Ministry of Water Resources.

Guppy , L., & Anderson, K. (2017). GLOBAL WATER CRISIS: THE FACTS. United Nations University Institute for Water, Environment and Health.

Haris, J. (2023). Socioeconomic Impacts of the Ten Billion Tree Tsunami (TBTT) Plantation Project on the Participating Communities. SLU, .

Helminski, C. A. (2003). Women of Sufism; A Hidden Treasure. Colorado: Shambhala.

Hut, R. (July 2, 2018). Pakistan has planted over a billion trees. Retrieved March 20, 2023, from World Economic Forum:

Janat, S. (August 15, 2017). Pakistan’s ‘Billion Tree Tsunami’ surpasses Bonn challenge commitment . Retrieved March 12, 2023, from World Asia:

Kabbani, M. H. (1995). The Naqshbandi Sufi Way; History and Guidebook of the Saints of the Golden Chain. Beirut: Kazi Publications.

Khalid, F., Taj, M. B., Jamil, A., Kamal, H., & Afzal, T. (2020). Deforestation Dynamics in Pakistan: A Critical Review. Pakistan Academy of Science 57 (3): 27-34, 27-34.

Khan, I. (march 14, 2021). The Express Tribune. Retrieved March 26, 2023, from PTI’s environment policies being recognised globally: PM Imran:

Khashig, I. (2022, August 29). Muslims and Christians in Abkhazia. Retrieved from JAMnews:

Malik, S. (January 31, 2022). Saudi Arabia to plant 10 billion trees in Pakistani style. Retrieved March 14, 2023, from The Express Tribune:

Meribole, J. (April 29, 2020). he Water Crisis In Pakistan. Retrieved Feb. 11, 2023, from Borgen Magazine:

Mukhtar, A. (2020). Climate Change and Water Security: Case of Pakistan. JSSA Vol. VI, No. 1, 56-85.

NASA. (2018). Responding to Climate Change. Retrieved March 29, 2023, from

NASA. (August 19, 2022). Global Climate Change. Retrieved 01 17, 2023, from The Effects of Climate Change:

NASA. (August 28, 2022). Devastating Floods in Pakistan. Retrieved MArch 20, 2023, from Earth Observatory:

PMD. (January 28, 2021). State of Pakistan’s Climate in 2020. Pakistan Meteorological Department.

Red Cross. (December 6, 2022). Retrieved March 26, 2023, from Flooding in Pakistan: the latest news:,clean%20water%2C%20and%20toilet%20facilities.

Shah, A. S. (September 14, 2020). Water Crisis, A Bigger Threat Than Terrorism. Retrieved Februray 26, 2023, from Daily Times:

Sharif, M. J. (2016). Managing Water Availability and Requirements in Pakistan: Challenges and Way Forward’. Agric. Res., Vol. 54(1).

Shehzad, T., Choudhry, S., & Ghuman, K. (June 2020). Climate Change and Water Shortage in Pakistan: An Analysis. Orient Research Journal of Social Sciences Vol.5, No. 1, 45-55.

Siddiqui, U. (May 21, 2022). Perfect climate storm’: Pakistan reels from extreme heat. Retrieved March 23, 2023, from Aljazeera:,whole%20period%2C%20the%20group%20said.

Sigamony, T. J. (January 13, 2023). Fund for construction of dams: Amount increased to Rs16.53bn, SC told. Retrieved Februry 14, 2023, from Business Recorder:

Stockholm. (March 15, 2022). Pakistan’s Ten Billion Tree Tsunami leading the way in ecosystem restoration decade. Retrieved March 13, 2023, from

Talebi, N., & Asim, D. M. (2023, May 17). Exploring Sufism in the Caucasus: Unveiling Parallels and Distinctions in the Spiritual Practices of Three Nations. Retrieved from Pak-Iran Intellectuals Forum:

Talpur, M. (September 16, 2019). Future of water in Pakistan. Retrieved February 22, 2023, from Daily Times:

The Express Tribune. (August 02, 2022). Retrieved March 16, 2023, from Tarbela nearing full capacity: FFD report:

The World Bank. (June 11, 2018). Retrieved MArch 12, 2023, from Fact Sheet: The Indus Waters Treaty 1960 and the Role of the World Bank:

The World Bank. (March 27, 2023). Retrieved 03 27, 2023, from Population, total Pakistan:

Tsvetkova, T. (2017). Muridism as a Stateforming Element of Imam Shamil`s Imamate (1834–1859). Journal of Caucasian Studies, 87-110.

UN. (June 2, 2021). Pakistan’s Ten Billion Tree Tsunami. Retrieved March 12, 2023, from UN Environment Program:

UN. (March 29, 2022). Daily Times. Retrieved March 23, 2023, from Pakistan leading the Global Ecosystem restoration efforts: UNEP:

vater, J. J. (June 23, 2021). The Indus Waters Treaty: Prospects for India-Pakistan Peace. Retrieved February 18, 2023, from ISAS institute of South Asian Studies:

Veldkamp T I, W. Y. (2015). Changing mechanism of global water scarcity events: Impacts of socioeconomic changes and inter-annual hydro-climatic variability. Global Environmental Change 32:, 18–29.

VoA. (March 15, 2017). Retrieved MArch 15, 2023, from India Approves Hydropower Projects on Rivers That Flow Into Pakistan:

WAPDA. (2011). An Overview of Electricity Sector in Pakistan. ICCI.

Watto, M. A., Mitchell, M., & Bashir, S. (2021). Water Resources of Pakistan: Issues and Impacts. Singapore: Springer.

Wimbush, S. E. (1985). Mystics and Commissars; Sufism in the Soviet Union. California: University of California Press.

World Weather Atribution. (September 14, 2022). Retrieved March 30, 2023, from Climate change likely increased extreme monsoon rainfall, flooding highly vulnerable communities in Pakistan:

Young, W. A. (2019, p.xv). Pakistan: Getting More from Water. World Bank.

Zaheer, D. m., & Asim, D. M. (2023, May 17). Harnessing the Power of Sustainable Forestry: A Comparative Analysis between Environmental Initiatives of Pakistan, Abkhazia and Georgia. Retrieved from Pak-Iran Intellectuals Forum:

Zeshan, M., & Shakeel, M. (August 2020). Water Crisis in Pakistan: A Dynamic CGE-Water Model. Research Square, 01-24.

Zuberi, M. (Janury 25, 2021). Pakistan 5th most vulnerable country to climate change. Retrieved 02 11, 2023, from Business Recorder: